1、2017年01月亚太 重复 2016年06月北美;
2、2018年03月北美 重复 2017年06月北美;
3、2018年05月亚太 重复 2018年04月北美(加场);
Young Tchartkoff was an artist of talent, which promised great things: his work gave evidence of observation, thought, and a strong inclination to approach nearer to nature.
"Look here, my friend," his professor said to him more than once, "you have talent; it will be a shame if you waste it: but you are impatient; you have but to be attracted by anything, to fall in love with it, you become engrossed with it, and all else goes for nothing, and you won't even look at it. See to it that you do not become a fashionable artist. At present your colouring begins to assert itself too loudly; and your drawing is at times quite weak; you are already striving after the fashionable style, because it strikes the eye at once. Have a care! Society already begins to have its attraction for you: I have seen you with a shiny hat, a foppish neckerchief. . . . It is seductive to paint fashionable little pictures and portraits for money; but talent is ruined, not developed, by that means. Be patient; think out every piece of work, discard your foppishness; let others amass money, your own will not fail you."
The professor was partly right. Our artist sometimes wanted to enjoy himself, to play the fop, in short, to give vent to his youthful impulses in some way or other; but he could control himself withal. At times he would forget everything, when he had once taken his brush in his hand, and could not tear himself from it except as from a delightful dream. His taste perceptibly developed. He did not as yet understand all the depths of Raphael, but he was attracted by Guido's broad and rapid handling, he paused before Titian's portraits; he delighted in the Flemish masters. The dark veil enshrouding the ancient pictures had not yet wholly passed away from before them; but he already saw something in them, though in private he did not agree with the professor that the secrets of the old masters are irremediably lost to us. It seemed to him that the nineteenth century had improved upon them considerably, that the delineation of nature was clearer, more vivid, and closer. It sometimes vexed him when he saw how a strange artist, French or German, sometimes not even a painter by profession, but only a skilful dauber, produced, by the celerity of his brush and the vividness of his colouring, a universal commotion, and amassed in a twinkling a funded capital. This did not occur to him when fully occupied with his own work, for then he forgot food and drink and the entire world. But when dire want arrived, when he had no money wherewith to buy brushes and colours, when his implacable landlord came ten times a day to demand the rent for his rooms, then did the luck of the wealthy artists recur to his hungry imagination; then did the thought which so often traverses Russian minds, to give up altogether, and go downhill, utterly to the bad, traverse his. And now he was almost in this frame of mind.
"Yes, it is all very well, to be patient, be patient!" he exclaimed, with vexation; "but there is an end to patience at last. Be patient! But what money have I to buy a dinner with to-morrow? No one will lend me any. If I did bring myself to sell all my pictures and sketches, they would not give me twenty kopeks for the whole of them. They are useful; I feel that not one of them has been undertaken in vain; I have learned something from each one. Yes, but of what use is it? Studies, sketches, all will be studies, trial-sketches to the end. And who will buy, not even knowing me by name? Who wants drawings from the antique, or the life class, or my unfinished love of a Psyche, or the interior of my room, or the portrait of Nikita, though it is better, to tell the truth, than the portraits by any of the fashionable artists? Why do I worry, and toil like a learner over the alphabet, when I might shine as brightly as the rest, and have money, too, like them?"
第一题：大意题：the passage mainly concerns， (答案：the struggle the artist’s values)
第二题：段落目的题，the main purpose of the first paragraphis ，(答案：to present the main character’s artistic traits)
第三题&第四题：询证题，the professor’s view of great art is， (答案：it should be artistic accomplished and not garish)
第六题：细节推断题，the professor and the artist differs in their views concerning whether， (答案：gaining money is detrimental to artistic integrity)
第八题&第九题：询证题，问the artist’s view of high artistic standard is that ，(答案：it is laborious and does not get the deserved compensation)
第十题：段落目的题，问the purpose of the last paragraph，(答案：to catalogue the frustrations of the young artist)
The phenomenon of false memories is common to everybody — the party you’re certain you attended in high school, say, when you were actually home with the flu, but so many people have told you about it over the years that it’s made its way into your own memory cache. False memories can sometimes be a mere curiosity, but other times they have real implications. Innocent people have gone to jail when well-intentioned eyewitnesses testify to events that actually unfolded an entirely different way.
What’s long been a puzzle to memory scientists is whether some people may be more susceptible to false memories than others — and, by extension, whether some people with exceptionally good memories may be immune to them. A new study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences answers both questions with a decisive no. False memories afflict everyone — even people with the best memories of all.
To conduct the study, a team led by psychologist Lawrence Patihis of the University of California, Irvine, recruited a sample group of people all of approximately the same age and divided them into two subgroups: those with ordinary memory and those with what is known as highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM). You’ve met people like that before, and they can be downright eerie. They’re the ones who can tell you the exact date on which particular events happened — whether in their own lives or in the news — as well as all manner of minute additional details surrounding the event that most people would forget the second they happened.
Word recall was also hazy. The scientists showed participants word lists, then removed the lists and tested the subjects on words that had and hadn’t been included. The lists all contained so-called lures — words that would make subjects think of other, related ones. The words pillow, duvet and nap, for example, might lead to a false memory of seeing the word sleep. All of the participants in both groups fell for the lures, with at least eight such errors per person—though some tallied as many as 20. Both groups also performed unreliably when shown photographs and fed lures intended to make them think they’d seen details in the pictures they hadn’t. Here too, the HSAM subjects cooked up as many fake images as the ordinary folks.
“What I love about the study is how it communicates something that memory-distortion researchers have suspected for some time, that perhaps no one is immune to memory distortion,” said Patihis.
What the study doesn’t do, Patihis admits, is explain why HSAM people exist at all. Their prodigious recall is a matter of scientific fact, and one of the goals of the new work was to see if an innate resistance to manufactured memories might be one of the reasons. But on that score, the researchers came up empty.
“It rules something out,” Patihis said. “[HSAM individuals] probably reconstruct memories in the same way that ordinary people do. So now we have to think about how else we could explain it.” He and others will continue to look for that secret sauce that elevates superior recall over the ordinary kind. But for now, memory still appears to be fragile, malleable and prone to errors — for all of us.
Bejamn Banneker : marking time
energy storage under pressure
2.精准用词。选择peak of，而不是peek for
本文选自2014年地New York Times，文章浅显易懂，歌颂地是当下的“分享经济”，鼓励更多的pharmaceuticalcompanies分享临床试验数据，互通有无，分享相关地试验数据，提高研发新药的速度，减少药物的副作用，为社会做出更多的贡献。 这篇文章的evidence部分主要运用的是medical evidence 和典型案例分析(case study)，并且用业内的leader做role model，增强persuasiveness;Reasoning的部分来说，主要的是contrast和cause-effect analysis，此外还有pre-emptivecounterargument; emotional appeals主要集中在文章的最后，用sense of duty/responsibility/ Samaritan spirit(好人精神)来uplift social morale.
Give the Data to the People
1. LAST week, Johnson & Johnson announced that it was making all of its clinical trial data available to scientists around the world. It has hired my group, Yale University Open Data Access Project, or YODA, to fully oversee the release of the data. Everything in the company’s clinical research vaults, including unpublished raw data, will be available for independent review.
作者用Johnson & Johnson最近的announcement用以introduce the article. 很显然，这个决定非常的突然而且让人感觉惊讶和heart-warming。
2. Thisis an extraordinary donation to society, and a reversal of the industry’s traditional tendency to treat data as an asset that would lose value if exposed to public scrutiny.
作者发表了对J& J决定的看法，作者用了extraordinary donation 这样的word choice来积极评价这个决定，这个决定无疑是对社会做出了巨大贡献。
3. Today, more than half of the clinical trials in the United States, including many sponsored by academic and governmental institutions, are not published within two years of their completion. Often they are never published at all. The unreported results, not surprisingly, are often those in which a drug failed to perform better than a placebo. As result, evidence-based medicine is, at best, based on only some of the evidence. One of the most troubling implications is that full information on a drug’s effects may never be discovered or released.
作者告诉了我们这个决定的社会背景，即半数以上的美国医药公司视临床试验数据为行业机密;同时，作者告诉我们，这种现象给社会带来的危害: the most troubling implications that full information on a drug’s effects may never be discovered or released. 相比之下，J & J 公司的决定就显得很伟大。
4. Even when studies are published, the actual data are usually not made available. End-users of research — patients, doctors and policy makers — are implicitly told by a single group of researchers to “take our word for it.” They are often forced to accept the report without the prospect of other independent scientists’ reproducing the findings — a violation of a central tenet of the scientific method.
5. To Belfair, the decision to share data is not easy. Companies worry that their competitors will benefit, that lawyers will take advantage, that incompetent scientists will misconstrue the data and come to mistaken conclusions. Researchers feel ownership of the data and may be reluctant to have others use it. So Johnson & Johnson, as well as companies like GlaxoSmithKline and Medtronic that have made more cautious moves toward transparency, deserve much credit. The more we share data, however, the more we find that many of these problems fail to materialize.
作者继续表扬J&J的决定，说公司的决定不容易，同时作者在分析为何公司不愿意分享这些数据的原因，主要原因是competition和legal entanglement，作者反驳说，其实更多的公司，包括GSK和 Medtronic，加入公开临床数据的分享，这些担心的原因就越不会发生。
6. In 2011, YODA struck a deal with Medtronic to release all the data on one of its products — a device that stimulates the production of bone. At the time, questions had been raised about the device’s safety, including whether it caused cancer, and about the conflicts of interests of some of the company’s researchers. Medtronic made the unusual decision to respond to the debate by releasing the device’s data for independent review. We commissioned and then published two independent reviews of the data, and now have made them globally available.
为了buttress claim，作者举了个例子(a case in point)，2011年YODA 与 Medtronic的合作，这一段主要围绕前段中提到的“为何公司担心分享临床试验数据”展开。
7. Interestingly, the reviews produced somewhat conflicting results. One found that the device was no better than a bone graft and might be associated with a slight increase in cancer, while the other found that the device was effective and the cancer risk inconclusive. To us these differences reinforce the value of open science: now the data are out there for further study.
作者继续在对这个案例进行详细分析;合作过程中发生的一些conflicting results等正好呼应了作者一开始担心的the most troubling implication，同时验证了分享临床数据的好处。
8. This program doesn’t mean that just anyone can gain access to the data without disclosing how they intend to use it. We require those who want the data to submit a proposal and identify their research team, funding and any conflicts of interest. They have to complete a short course on responsible conduct and sign an agreement that restricts them to their proposed research question. Most important, they must agree to share whatever they find. And we exclude applicants who seek data for commercial or legal purposes. Our intent is not to be tough gatekeepers, but to ensure that the data are used in a transparent way and contribute to overall scientific knowledge.
这里一段可以说是pre-empt了读者的potential concern，即分享临床数据并不代表这些数据可以被滥用，这样说的目的是打消target audience的顾虑，这样更多的医药公司能够加入分享临床数据的潮流中来。 这里大量地呼吁audience，再次重申了project地社会贡献。
9. There are many benefits to this kind of sharing. It honors the contributions of the subjects and scientists who participated in the research. It is proof that an organization, whether it is part of industry or academia, wants to play a roleas a good global citizen. It demonstrates that the organization has nothing to hide. And it enables scientists to use the data to learn new ways to help patients. Such an approach can even teach a company like Johnson & Johnson something it didn’t know about its own products.
这一段作者饱醮感情地歌颂了分享精神，希望更多地医药企业能够加入分享队伍，主要是通过appeals to their duty。
10. For the good of society, this is a breakthrough thatshould be replicated throughout the research world.