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GRE阅读题制胜法则

2017年09月25日 03:27 供稿单位:互联网  责编:王海琴

  GRE阅读题制胜法则!刚开始接触GRE的同学可能会觉得逻辑题很难,无从下手,其实逻辑题在掌握了规律以后会发现并没有当初认为的那么难。因此,逻辑题有什么规律可寻呢?我会以官方指南里的三篇文章为例给大家介绍一下。


  逻辑题在每个Section都会有1-2道,逻辑题标志是文章很短,大概50-100字左右,只有一题。但正常阅读文章中也有针对某些句子的逻辑题。

  GRE逻辑题主要分为三个类型:

  1.强化论点

  2.弱化论点

  3.假设/调和差异

  做逻辑题建议先读题干,再看文章。最重要的是在文章中找到Core Argument。在读文章时,要特别注意其中出现的since, because, if等表示命题之间的因果、条件关系的词汇,也要注意句子的谓语部分出现的表示相关和因果关系的词汇,例如correlate with, coincide with,这些词汇构成了Core Argument。


  一、强化类

  提问方式:

  Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

  Which of the following, if true, would support the author’s hypothesis?

  强化论点的方法有3种:

  (1)重述或强调前提

  (2)支持论据

  (3)排除其他因素

  总结成一句话就是:缩小推理过程的差异

  Sparva, unlike Treland’s other provinces, requires automobile insurers to pay for any medical treatment sought by someone who has been involved in an accident; in the other provinces, insurers pay for nonemergency treatment only if they preapprove the treatment. Clearly, Sparva’s less restrictive policy must be the explanation for the fact that altogether insurers there pay for far more treatments after accidents than insurers in other provinces, even though Sparva does not have the largest population.

  7. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

  A Car insurance costs more in Sparva than in any other province.

  B The cost of medical care in Sparva is higher than the national average.

  C Different insurance companies have different standards for determining what constitutes emergency treatment.

  D Fewer insurance companies operate in Sparva than in any other province.

  E There are fewer traffic accidents annually in Sparva than in any of the provinces of comparable or greater population.

  文章的Core Argument:

  Sparva更加宽松的赔付政策导致了Sparva在人口很少的情况下承保人要支付更多的事故赔偿金

  问加强这一论点

  可以这样考虑,导致高事故赔偿金有几种因素,比如更多交通事故,更多人口等,而如果Sparva交通事故少,人口又少的情况下赔偿金还这么高,更加说明了Sparva宽松的赔付政策导致了Sparva的承保人支付更多的事故,这就加强了论点,因此选E。A和B是弱化了论点,C是和论点无关,D的话,保险公司少了,但每家公司摊的多,所以总数量还是没变,依然很多。


  二、弱化类

  提问方式:

  Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken/undermine/cast doubt on the author’s assertion?

  弱化原文的方法有3种:

  (1)直接反对前提

  (2)反对证据

  (3)给出其他原因

  总结成一句话就是:加大推理过程的差异

  In 1998 the United States Department of Transportation received nearly 10,000 consumer complaints about airlines; in 1999 it received over 20,000. Moreover, the number of complaints per 100,000 passengers also more than doubled. In both years the vast majority of complaints concerned flight delays, cancellations, mishandled baggage, and customer service. Clearly, therefore, despite the United States airline industry’s serious efforts to improve performance in these areas, passenger dissatisfaction with airline service increased significantly in 1999.

  21. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

  A Although the percentage of flights that arrived on time dropped slightly overall, from 77 percent in 1998 to 76 percent in 1999, some United States airlines’ 1999 on-time rate was actually better than their 1998 on-time rate.

  B The number of passengers flying on United States airlines was significantly higher in 1999 than in 1998.

  C Fewer bags per 1,000 passengers flying on United States airlines were lost or delayed in 1999 than in 1998.

  D The appearance in 1999 of many new Internet sites that relay complaints directly to the Department of Transportation has made filing a complaint about airlines much easier for consumers than ever before.

  E Although the number of consumer complaints increased for every major United States airline in 1999, for some airlines the extent of the increase was substantial, whereas for others it was extremely small.

  可以这样考虑,有可能是1999年网站让人员更加容易投诉了,也就是说,或许1998年投诉人数比1999年还多,但由于信息渠道不发达,所以造成了1999年比1998年投诉更多的假象,其实是投诉无门。即D选项,而A和E是加强论点的,B选项,文章已经说了complaint/100,000也翻倍了,就和总人数无关了,而C只说了mishandled baggage这一项改进了,其他方面可能做的更差,所以不足以weaken。


  三、假设/调和差异类

  提问方式:

  assumption/explain the difference/reconcile the discrepancy/resolve the paradox

  除了逻辑强化与弱化,逻辑单题也经常问到原文论证或理论的假设(assumption)。假设,按其定义,指的是如其不成立,则原推理不成立的条件,这时,答案要提供一个桥梁,连接推理的两端,好比bridge the gap。

  另一种考法是,原文两个命题之间存在语言上的矛盾,比如,A句说某事物增加,B句说另一个相关事物减少。题干要求解释原文两个说法A和B之间的差别:explain the difference, 或者,由于A、B在这种情况下彼此似乎冲突,题干就问如何调节这种差异或冲突:reconcile the discrepancy, 或者解决或消除这种冲突或矛盾:resolve the paradox。这时的答案不能重复A或B,而是提供中间环节X,使得A→X→B。

  During the day in Lake Constance, the zooplankton D. hyalina departs for the depths where food is scarce and the water cold. D. galeata remains near the warm surface where food is abundant. Even though D. galeata grows and reproduces much faster, its population is often outnumbered by D. hyalina.

  3. Which of the following, if true, would help resolve the apparent paradox presented above?

  A The number of species of zooplankton living at the bottom of the lake is twice that of species living at the surface.

  B Predators of zooplankton, such as whitefish and perch, live and feed near the surface of the lake during the day.

  C In order to make the most of scarce food resources, D. hyalina matures more slowly than D. galeata.

  D D. galeata clusters under vegetation during the hottest part of the day to avoid the Sun’s rays.

  E D. galeata produces twice as many offspring per individual in any given period of time as does D. hyalina.

  Bridge the gap: predators在湖表面吃掉g,导致g的数量下降,尽管g生存条件好,繁殖能力强,但是面临众多捕食者,后代数量必定下降,反倒不如生存条件差,但没有天敌的h,完美解决了paradox,所以选B。A的意思是h的数量是g的两倍,h本来就多,所以这个是加强paradox的;C的意思是h比g成熟慢,说明h的数量比g少,而文章得出结论h > g,与文章不符,同理,D和E也是可以得出g > h,与文章不符。


  最后,我们可以总结一下逻辑题错误选项的特征,大家在做题的时候也可以考虑用排除法,把明显错误的选项排除掉。

  1. 相反:比如,题干选强化,而选项是弱化等

  2. 无关:与文章的argument无关

  3. Out of Scope:扩大了argument的范围

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