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新航道北京学校名师试听赵临川-托福阅读-阅读题看不懂行吗
赵临川-托福阅读-阅读题看不懂行吗

介绍:自我介绍及托福阅读单项介绍 题型之——修辞目的题讲解 学生案例分析及备考策略

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时长:31:53  年份:2019-5

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视频概述

托福阅读

  北京新航道学校-赵临川老师

  课程内容

  自我介绍及托福阅读单项介绍

  题型之——修辞目的题讲解

  学生案例分析及备考策略

  自我介绍

  赵临川 – Lincoln

  英国University of Strathclyde教育研究硕士;

  东南大学科学教育学士;

  七年教育研究经验;

  上千万字的英语文献阅读量;

  人生格言:每个人都是奇迹,而若能够看遍并感受这个由奇迹组成的世界,便是我此生的奇迹。

  托福阅读单项介绍

  满分30分;

  60分钟, 3篇文章(约800词/篇), 共45个问题;(加试则为80分钟, 4篇文章, 60个问题)

  分数算法:无来自官方的确切的标准,但推测与题目难易度有关(4-6→28-26→10);

  10种题型。

  托福阅读单项介绍

  d) 10种题型:

  词汇题 9-15道

  段落结构题 1-3道

  句子简化题 2-3道

  句子插入题 3道

  指代题 0-2道

  推断题 2-6道

  事实信息题 9-21道

  选非题 2-6道

  修辞目的题 2-6道

  文章总结题(6选3)/表格题(7选5) 3道

  托福阅读单项介绍

  d) 10种题型:

  词汇题 9-15道

  段落结构题 1-3道

  句子简化题 3道

  句子插入题 2-3道

  指代题 0-2道

  推断题 2-6道

  事实信息题 9-21道

  选非题 2-6道

  修辞目的题 2-6道

  文章总结题(6选3)/表格题(7选5) 3道

  修辞目的题讲解

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict. When researchers measured the heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance of people before, during and after yawning, they did detect some changes in skin conductance following yawning, indicating a slight increase in physiological activity. However, similar changes occurred when the subjects were asked simply to open their mouths or to breathe deeply. Yawning did nothing special to their state of physiological activity. Experiments have also cast serious doubt on the belief that yawning is triggered by a drop in blood oxygen or a rise in blood carbon dioxide. Volunteers were told to think about yawning while they breathed either normal air, pure oxygen, or an air mixture with an above-normal level of carbon dioxide. If the theory was correct, breathing air with extra carbon dioxide should have triggered yawning, while breathing pure oxygen should have suppressed yawning. In fact, neither condition made any difference to the frequency of yawning, which remained constant at about 24 yawns per hour. Another experiment demonstrated that physical exercise, which was sufficiently vigorous to double the rate of breathing, had no effect on the frequency of yawning. Again the implication is that yawning has little or nothing to do with oxygen.

  Why does the author note that there were physiological changes when subjects opened their mouths or breathed deeply?

  ○To present an argument in support of the tiredness theory

  ○To cast doubt on the reliability of the tests that measured heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance

  ○To argue against the hypothesis that yawning provides a special way to improve alertness or raise physiological activity

  ○To support the idea that opening the mouth or breathing deeply can affect blood oxygen levels

  修辞目的题讲解

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict. When researchers measured the heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance of people before, during and after yawning, they did detect some changes in skin conductance following yawning, indicating a slight increase in physiological activity. However, similar changes occurred when the subjects were asked simply to open their mouths or to breathe deeply. Yawning did nothing special to their state of physiological activity. Experiments have also cast serious doubt on the belief that yawning is triggered by a drop in blood oxygen or a rise in blood carbon dioxide. Volunteers were told to think about yawning while they breathed either normal air, pure oxygen, or an air mixture with an above-normal level of carbon dioxide. If the theory was correct, breathing air with extra carbon dioxide should have triggered yawning, while breathing pure oxygen should have suppressed yawning. In fact, neither condition made any difference to the frequency of yawning, which remained constant at about 24 yawns per hour. Another experiment demonstrated that physical exercise, which was sufficiently vigorous to double the rate of breathing, had no effect on the frequency of yawning. Again the implication is that yawning has little or nothing to do with oxygen.

  Why does the author note that there were physiological changes when subjects opened their mouths or breathed deeply?

  ○To present an argument in support of the tiredness theory

  ○To cast doubt on the reliability of the tests that measured heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance

  ○To argue against the hypothesis that yawning provides a special way to improve alertness or raise physiological activity

  ○To support the idea that opening the mouth or breathing deeply can affect blood oxygen levels

  修辞目的题讲解

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict. When researchers measured the heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance of people before, during and after yawning, they did detect some changes in skin conductance following yawning, indicating a slight increase in physiological activity. However, similar changes occurred when the subjects were asked simply to open their mouths or to breathe deeply. Yawning did nothing special to their state of physiological activity. Experiments have also cast serious doubt on the belief that yawning is triggered by a drop in blood oxygen or a rise in blood carbon dioxide. Volunteers were told to think about yawning while they breathed either normal air, pure oxygen, or an air mixture with an above-normal level of carbon dioxide. If the theory was correct, breathing air with extra carbon dioxide should have triggered yawning, while breathing pure oxygen should have suppressed yawning. In fact, neither condition made any difference to the frequency of yawning, which remained constant at about 24 yawns per hour. Another experiment demonstrated that physical exercise, which was sufficiently vigorous to double the rate of breathing, had no effect on the frequency of yawning. Again the implication is that yawning has little or nothing to do with oxygen.

  Why does the author note that there were physiological changes when subjects opened their mouths or breathed deeply?

  ○To present an argument in support of the tiredness theory

  ○To cast doubt on the reliability of the tests that measured heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance

  ○To argue against the hypothesis that yawning provides a special way to improve alertness or raise physiological activity

  ○To support the idea that opening the mouth or breathing deeply can affect blood oxygen levels

  修辞目的题讲解

  如何理解“作者使用修辞的意图”?

  For example,

  天空好蓝呀,就像蓝宝石一样。

  我特别想减肥。虽然我现在很想吃甜点,但是我也要忍住不吃。

  修辞存在的目的是为了去说明一件事情。

  修辞目的题讲解

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict. When researchers measured the heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance of people before, during and after yawning, they did detect some changes in skin conductance following yawning, indicating a slight increase in physiological activity. However, similar changes occurred when the subjects were asked simply to open their mouths or to breathe deeply. Yawning did nothing special to their state of physiological activity. Experiments have also cast serious doubt on the belief that yawning is triggered by a drop in blood oxygen or a rise in blood carbon dioxide. Volunteers were told to think about yawning while they breathed either normal air, pure oxygen, or an air mixture with an above-normal level of carbon dioxide. If the theory was correct, breathing air with extra carbon dioxide should have triggered yawning, while breathing pure oxygen should have suppressed yawning. In fact, neither condition made any difference to the frequency of yawning, which remained constant at about 24 yawns per hour. Another experiment demonstrated that physical exercise, which was sufficiently vigorous to double the rate of breathing, had no effect on the frequency of yawning. Again the implication is that yawning has little or nothing to do with oxygen.

  Why does the author note that there were physiological changes when subjects opened their mouths or breathed deeply?

  ○To present an argument in support of the tiredness theory

  ○To cast doubt on the reliability of the tests that measured heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance

  ○To argue against the hypothesis that yawning provides a special way to improve alertness or raise physiological activity

  ○To support the idea that opening the mouth or breathing deeply can affect blood oxygen levels

  修辞目的题讲解

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict. When researchers measured the heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance of people before, during and after yawning, they did detect some changes in skin conductance following yawning, indicating a slight increase in physiological activity. However, similar changes occurred when the subjects were asked simply to open their mouths or to breathe deeply. Yawning did nothing special to their state of physiological activity. Experiments have also cast serious doubt on the belief that yawning is triggered by a drop in blood oxygen or a rise in blood carbon dioxide. Volunteers were told to think about yawning while they breathed either normal air, pure oxygen, or an air mixture with an above-normal level of carbon dioxide. If the theory was correct, breathing air with extra carbon dioxide should have triggered yawning, while breathing pure oxygen should have suppressed yawning. In fact, neither condition made any difference to the frequency of yawning, which remained constant at about 24 yawns per hour. Another experiment demonstrated that physical exercise, which was sufficiently vigorous to double the rate of breathing, had no effect on the frequency of yawning. Again the implication is that yawning has little or nothing to do with oxygen.

  修辞目的题讲解

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict. When researchers measured the heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance of people before, during and after yawning, they did detect some changes in skin conductance following yawning, indicating a slight increase in physiological activity. However, similar changes occurred when the subjects were asked simply to open their mouths or to breathe deeply. Yawning did nothing special to their state of physiological activity. // Experiments have also cast serious doubt…

  题目所问的句子所处事件:

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict.

  修辞目的题讲解

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict【主旨1】. When researchers measured the heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance of people before, during and after yawning, they did detect some changes in skin conductance following yawning, indicating a slight increase in physiological activity 【例1 – 反驳主旨1】. However, similar changes occurred when the subjects were asked simply to open their mouths or to breathe deeply 【例2 – 反驳例1】. Yawning did nothing special to their state of physiological activity. 【小结】// Experiments have also cast serious doubt… 【主旨2】

  题目所问的句子所处事件:

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict.

  主旨1 – 例1 – 例2 – 小结 – 主旨2 – …

  修辞目的题讲解

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict【主旨1】. When researchers measured the heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance of people before, during and after yawning, they did detect some changes in skin conductance following yawning, indicating a slight increase in physiological activity 【例1 – 反驳主旨1】. However, similar changes occurred when the subjects were asked simply to open their mouths or to breathe deeply 【例2 – 反驳例1】. Yawning did nothing special to their state of physiological activity. 【小结】// Experiments have also cast serious doubt… 【主旨2】

  题目所问的句子所处事件:

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict.

  主旨1 – 例1 – 例2 – 小结 – 主旨2 – …

  修辞目的题讲解

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict【主旨1】. When researchers measured the heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance of people before, during and after yawning, they did detect some changes in skin conductance following yawning, indicating a slight increase in physiological activity 【例1 – 反驳主旨1】. However, similar changes occurred when the subjects were asked simply to open their mouths or to breathe deeply 【例2 – 反驳例1】. Yawning did nothing special to their state of physiological activity. 【小结】// Experiments have also cast serious doubt… 【主旨2】

  题目所问的句子所处事件:

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict.

  主旨1 – 例1 – 例2 – 小结 – 主旨2 – …

  修辞目的题讲解

  Another flaw of the tiredness theory is that yawning does not raise alertness or physiological activity, as the theory would predict【主旨1】. When researchers measured the heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance of people before, during and after yawning, they did detect some changes in skin conductance following yawning, indicating a slight increase in physiological activity 【例1 – 反驳主旨1】. However, similar changes occurred when the subjects were asked simply to open their mouths or to breathe deeply 【例2 – 反驳例1】. Yawning did nothing special to their state of physiological activity. 【小结】// Experiments have also cast serious doubt… 【主旨2】

  主旨1 – 例1 – 例2 – 小结 – 主旨2 – …

  反驳例1还是支持主旨1?

  通过反驳例1来支持主旨1

  修辞目的题讲解

  Why does the author note that there were physiological changes when subjects opened their mouths or breathed deeply?

  ○To present an argument in support of the tiredness theory

  ○To cast doubt on the reliability of the tests that measured heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance

  ○To argue against the hypothesis that yawning provides a special way to improve alertness or raise physiological activity

  ○To support the idea that opening the mouth or breathing deeply can affect blood oxygen levels

  主旨1 – 例1 – 例2 – 小结 …

  通过反驳例1来支持主旨1

  修辞目的题讲解

  Why does the author note that there were physiological changes when subjects opened their mouths or breathed deeply?

  ○To present an argument in support of the tiredness theory

  ○To cast doubt on the reliability of the tests that measured heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance

  ○To argue against the hypothesis that yawning provides a special way to improve alertness or raise physiological activity

  ○To support the idea that opening the mouth or breathing deeply can affect blood oxygen levels

  主旨1 – 例1 – 例2 – 小结 …

  通过反驳例1来支持主旨1

  修辞目的题讲解

  The quantity and total weight of soil flora generally exceed that of soil fauna. By far the most numerous and smallest of the plants living in soil are bacteria. Under favorable conditions, a million or more of these tiny, single-celled plants can inhabit each cubic centimeter of soil. It is the bacteria, more than any other organisms, that enable rock or other parent material to undergo the gradual transformation to soil. Some bacteria produce organic acids that directly attack parent material, breaking it down and releasing plant nutrients. Others decompose organic litter (debris) to form humus (nutrient-rich organic matter). A third group of bacteria inhabits the root systems of plants called legumes. These include many important agricultural crops, such as alfalfa, clover, soybeans, peas, and peanuts. The bacteria that legumes host within their root nodules (small swellings on the root) change nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into nitrogen compounds that plants are able to metabolize, a process, known as nitrogen fixation, that makes the soil more fertile. Other microscopic plants also are important in soil development. For example, in highly acidic soils where few bacteria can survive, fungi frequently become the chief decomposers of organic matter.

  In paragraph 2, why does the author mention the activity of fungi in acidic soils?

  ○ To demonstrate that fungi are capable of nitrogen fixation under certain conditions

  ○ To supports the claim that microscopic plants besides bacteria contribute to soil development

  ○ To show that fungi play a different role from bacteria in decomposing organic matter

  ○ To account for the survival rate of microscopic plants in highly acidic soils

  修辞目的题讲解

  The quantity and total weight of soil flora generally exceed that of soil fauna. By far the most numerous and smallest of the plants living in soil are bacteria. Under favorable conditions, a million or more of these tiny, single-celled plants can inhabit each cubic centimeter of soil. It is the bacteria, more than any other organisms, that enable rock or other parent material to undergo the gradual transformation to soil. Some bacteria produce organic acids that directly attack parent material, breaking it down and releasing plant nutrients. Others decompose organic litter (debris) to form humus (nutrient-rich organic matter). A third group of bacteria inhabits the root systems of plants called legumes. These include many important agricultural crops, such as alfalfa, clover, soybeans, peas, and peanuts. The bacteria that legumes host within their root nodules (small swellings on the root) change nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into nitrogen compounds that plants are able to metabolize, a process, known as nitrogen fixation, that makes the soil more fertile. Other microscopic plants also are important in soil development. For example, in highly acidic soils where few bacteria can survive, fungi frequently become the chief decomposers of organic matter.

  In paragraph 2, why does the author mention the activity of fungi in acidic soils?

  ○ To demonstrate that fungi are capable of nitrogen fixation under certain conditions

  ○ To supports the claim that microscopic plants besides bacteria contribute to soil development

  ○ To show that fungi play a different role from bacteria in decomposing organic matter

  ○ To account for the survival rate of microscopic plants in highly acidic soils

  修辞目的题讲解

  The quantity and total weight of soil flora generally exceed that of soil fauna. By far the most numerous and smallest of the plants living in soil are bacteria. Under favorable conditions, a million or more of these tiny, single-celled plants can inhabit each cubic centimeter of soil. It is the bacteria, more than any other organisms, that enable rock or other parent material to undergo the gradual transformation to soil. Some bacteria produce organic acids that directly attack parent material, breaking it down and releasing plant nutrients. Others decompose organic litter (debris) to form humus (nutrient-rich organic matter). A third group of bacteria inhabits the root systems of plants called legumes. These include many important agricultural crops, such as alfalfa, clover, soybeans, peas, and peanuts. The bacteria that legumes host within their root nodules (small swellings on the root) change nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into nitrogen compounds that plants are able to metabolize, a process, known as nitrogen fixation, that makes the soil more fertile. Other microscopic plants also are important in soil development. For example, in highly acidic soils where few bacteria can survive, fungi frequently become the chief decomposers of organic matter.

  In paragraph 2, why does the author mention the activity of fungi in acidic soils?

  ○ To demonstrate that fungi are capable of nitrogen fixation under certain conditions

  ○ To supports the claim that microscopic plants besides bacteria contribute to soil development

  ○ To show that fungi play a different role from bacteria in decomposing organic matter

  ○ To account for the survival rate of microscopic plants in highly acidic soils

  修辞目的题讲解

  In the deeper waters of the oceans, there is a much greater tendency for animals to await the arrival of food particles or prey rather than to search them out actively (thus minimizing energy expenditure). This has resulted in a more stealthy style of feeding, with the consequent emphasis on lures and/or the evolution of elongated appendages that increase the active volume of water controlled or monitored by the animal. Another consequence of the limited availability of prey is that many animals have developed ways of coping with much larger food particles, relative to their own body size, than the equivalent shallower species can process. Among the fishes there is a tendency for the teeth and jaws to become appreciably enlarged. In such creatures, not only are the teeth hugely enlarged and/or the jaws elongated but the size of the mouth opening may be greatly increased by making the jaw articulations so flexible that they can be effectively dislocated. Very large or long teeth provide almost no room for cutting the prey into a convenient size for swallowing, the fish must gulp the prey down whole.

  Why does the author include the information that animals in the deep ocean place an emphasis on “lures" and have evolved "elongated appendages”?

  O To argue against the view that animals in the deep ocean use more energy to find food than do animals in shallow waters

  O To emphasize the importance of an am mars ability to control a large volume of water

  O To identify some feeding strategies that animals have developed to minimize their energy expenditure

  O To give examples of body structures that help those animals move quickly in deep ocean waters

  修辞目的题讲解

  In the deeper waters of the oceans, there is a much greater tendency for animals to await the arrival of food particles or prey rather than to search them out actively (thus minimizing energy expenditure). This has resulted in a more stealthy style of feeding, with the consequent emphasis on lures and/or the evolution of elongated appendages that increase the active volume of water controlled or monitored by the animal. Another consequence of the limited availability of prey is that many animals have developed ways of coping with much larger food particles, relative to their own body size, than the equivalent shallower species can process. Among the fishes there is a tendency for the teeth and jaws to become appreciably enlarged. In such creatures, not only are the teeth hugely enlarged and/or the jaws elongated but the size of the mouth opening may be greatly increased by making the jaw articulations so flexible that they can be effectively dislocated. Very large or long teeth provide almost no room for cutting the prey into a convenient size for swallowing, the fish must gulp the prey down whole.

  Why does the author include the information that animals in the deep ocean place an emphasis on “lures" and have evolved "elongated appendages”?

  O To argue against the view that animals in the deep ocean use more energy to find food than do animals in shallow waters

  O To emphasize the importance of an am mars ability to control a large volume of water

  O To identify some feeding strategies that animals have developed to minimize their energy expenditure

  O To give examples of body structures that help those animals move quickly in deep ocean waters

  修辞目的题讲解

  In the deeper waters of the oceans, there is a much greater tendency for animals to await the arrival of food particles or prey rather than to search them out actively (thus minimizing energy expenditure). This has resulted in a more stealthy style of feeding, with the consequent emphasis on lures and/or the evolution of elongated appendages that increase the active volume of water controlled or monitored by the animal. Another consequence of the limited availability of prey is that many animals have developed ways of coping with much larger food particles, relative to their own body size, than the equivalent shallower species can process. Among the fishes there is a tendency for the teeth and jaws to become appreciably enlarged. In such creatures, not only are the teeth hugely enlarged and/or the jaws elongated but the size of the mouth opening may be greatly increased by making the jaw articulations so flexible that they can be effectively dislocated. Very large or long teeth provide almost no room for cutting the prey into a convenient size for swallowing, the fish must gulp the prey down whole.

  Why does the author include the information that animals in the deep ocean place an emphasis on “lures" and have evolved "elongated appendages”?

  O To argue against the view that animals in the deep ocean use more energy to find food than do animals in shallow waters

  O To emphasize the importance of an am mars ability to control a large volume of water

  O To identify some feeding strategies that animals have developed to minimize their energy expenditure

  O To give examples of body structures that help those animals move quickly in deep ocean waters

  修辞目的题讲解

  In the deeper waters of the oceans, there is a much greater tendency for animals to await the arrival of food particles or prey rather than to search them out actively (thus minimizing energy expenditure). This has resulted in a more stealthy style of feeding, with the consequent emphasis on lures and/or the evolution of elongated appendages that increase the active volume of water controlled or monitored by the animal. Another consequence of the limited availability of prey is that many animals have developed ways of coping with much larger food particles, relative to their own body size, than the equivalent shallower species can process. Among the fishes there is a tendency for the teeth and jaws to become appreciably enlarged. In such creatures, not only are the teeth hugely enlarged and/or the jaws elongated but the size of the mouth opening may be greatly increased by making the jaw articulations so flexible that they can be effectively dislocated. Very large or long teeth provide almost no room for cutting the prey into a convenient size for swallowing, the fish must gulp the prey down whole.

  Why does the author include the information that animals in the deep ocean place an emphasis on “lures" and have evolved "elongated appendages”?

  O To argue against the view that animals in the deep ocean use more energy to find food than do animals in shallow waters

  O To emphasize the importance of an am mars ability to control a large volume of water

  O To identify some feeding strategies that animals have developed to minimize their energy expenditure

  O To give examples of body structures that help those animals move quickly in deep ocean waters

  修辞目的题讲解

  小结

  找到原句;

  识别逻辑;

  锁定对应部分;

  对应选项。

  针对不同逻辑,采取不同的做法 – 后续将有更多相关课程

  学员案例分析及备考策略

  1月份班课后

  

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  学员案例分析及备考策略

  课前情况:

  词汇量 – 足够,几乎可以应付所有词汇题(10k左右);

  阅读理解 – 过关,很少有看不懂的句子;

  做题准确度 – 每篇文章基本错3道,没有题型规律;

  做题速度 – 一般,基本可以保证20分钟一篇文章。

  自考结果:阅读22,总分90。

  学员案例分析及备考策略

  课中备考:

  词汇量 – *扩充至至少8k,同时识记TPO所有的词汇题;

  阅读理解 – *精读,划分句子结构,查阅所有生词;

  做题准确度 – 培训课程/专项训练;

  做题速度 – 按照如下顺序掐时:每题,每篇,四篇。

  上课后成绩:阅读27分(一个月提升5分),总分105(一个月提升15分)。

  学员案例分析及备考策略

  按部就班备考,有问题找新航道。

  祝大家都能考出满意的成绩!