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年中深度总结(二):托福阅读套路变了该怎么办

2017-07-14 10:55     供稿单位: 新航道     责编:新航道小编    浏览 0

摘要: 年中深度总结(二):托福阅读套路变了该怎么办?在涯叔教了这么多年并对近3年的托福阅读考试数据整理分析后发现,2017年应该是 ETS 尝试在考试套路上做些改变的一年,涯叔相信在这一年之后的考...

  年中深度总结(二):托福阅读套路变了该怎么办?

  2017年上半年考情分析【 托福阅读

  2017年1月开始到目前为止一共出现了17场考试,其中1月份共2场考试分别是1月7日和1月14日,2月份共3场考试分别是2月18日,2月25日和2月26日,3月份共3场考试分别是3月4日,3月11日和3月25日,4月份共2场考试分别是4月1日,4月15日和4月23日,5月份共4场考试分别是5月6日,5月13日,5月20日和5月27日,6月份共2场考试6月3日和6月10日(6月25日暂不包括,因为写这篇文章的时候该场考试还未出现)。

  在新航道涯叔教了这么多年并对近3年的托福阅读考试数据整理分析后发现,2017年应该是 ETS 尝试在考试套路上做些改变的一年,涯叔相信在这一年之后的考试依旧会延续这些改变,希望各位考生多关注。

  1.2017 托福阅读套路变化

  第一个改变

  常规阅读考试在变得越来越少,所谓常规阅读考试指考生去参加考试只遇到3篇阅读,不考虑阅读加试(即考生遇到4篇文章)或阅读 A/B 卷(即考生在同一次考试遇到2套卷子)。

  涯叔发现1-6月17场考试中只有3场为常规考试,分别是1月7日,2月25日和2月26日。

  第二个改变

  阅读 A/B 卷的次数变得越来越少,按照趋势应该会被多套题的出题形式完全取代(实际上这个趋势正在进行)。

  涯叔发现1-6月17场考试只出现了3次考试,分别是1月14日,2月18日和4月1日。其实按照以往的数据显示,一般差不多每3个月出现1次A/B卷,然而在今年1月14日和2月18日连着2场考试都是A/B卷,之后除了4月1日其他考试日基本就没出现A/B卷了。

  第三个改变

  阅读出现 A/B/C/D 卷已然成为常态(每套题的难度会出现不一致的情况,至少会出现 A/B/C 3套卷子,至多会出现 A/B/C/D/E 5套卷子)。

  3月4日这场考试应该是史上最强的托福阅读考试,在这一次考试中我们看到 ETS 放出来共17篇文章,也就是说共放出来5套题外加2篇加试文章,你肯定以为这是一场假的托福阅读考试,当我看到的时候我也惊呆了,也正是这场考试为整个3月包括之后考试定下了基调并改变涯叔研究了好久的托福阅读考试规律。

  我们发现紧接着3月11日,3月25日,4月15日,4月23日,5月6日,5月13日和6月3日都出现了4套题目,其中5月20日和6月10日出现了5套题目(其中6月10日出现罕见的大面积延迟考试),5月27日出现了3套卷子(该场考试大部分学生反馈题目偏简单)。

  第四个改变

  阅读出现多套题(大于等于2套题)的时候大概率(可能接近80%)都会被加试,这个加试概率正在跟听力保持接近的状态(中国考区听力被加试的概率就在80%附近)。

  常规阅读考试,阅读加试或阅读遇到 A/B 卷,考生只可能2选1,但是3月4日,3月11日,3月25日,4月1日,4月15日,4月23日,5月6日,5月13日,5月20日,5月27日,6月3日和6月10日共12场考试的数据显示,考生在一次考试中大概率既会遇到加试又遇会到多套题,这里需要指出的是4月1日是 A/B 卷但是出现了加试。

  2.托福阅读题型解析

  当然尽管托福阅读考试有以上4个改变,涯叔发现托福阅读考试考查的十大题型是相对稳定的基本没有太大的变化,比如词汇题和细节题依旧占据了阅读考试的半壁江山大约50%附近,句子简化题,插句题,选非题,修辞题,推理题和归总题占据了剩余的50%,指代题和表格题很少出现基本可以忽略。

  考虑到词汇题和细节题在这个考试当中的重要性,接下来我们来重点看一下实战中如何处理词汇题和细节题,首先我们来看一下词汇题。

  托福词汇题

  第一类:常见简单词汇,直接秒杀

  The most crucial effect of climate was on the sheer quantity of land available in each period, measurable by studying ancient coastlines.

  1. The word crucial in the passage is closest in meaning to (TPO49-1)

  A Interesting

  B Important

  C Established

  D Understood

  分析:crucial 表示“关键的,重要的”,选B.

  Raised beaches often consist of areas of sand, pebbles, or dunes, sometimes containing seashells or piles of debris comprising shells and bones of marine animals used by humans.

  2. The word comprising in the passage 4 is closest in meaning to(TPO49-1)

  A Taken from

  B Made up of

  C Suggesting

  D Covering

  分析:comprising 来自于comprise,comprise 表示组成,选B.

  第二类:少见较难词汇 联系上下文(大概率能做对)

  Raised beaches are remnants of former coastlines at higher levels relative to the present shoreline and visible, for instance, along the Californian coast north of San Francisco.

  3. The word remnants in the passage is closest meaning to(TPO49-1)

  A Remains

  B Regions

  C Points

  D Origins

  分析:remnants 所在这句子前半部分表示“上升海滩其实是之前海岸线的X”,A表示遗骸(放进文中说明 raised beaches 是 former coastlines 的遗骸,感觉蛮对),B表示区域(放进文中感觉好像可以,但是如果说 raised beaches 是 former coastlines 的区域,会给人一种感觉 raised beaches 其实就是 former coastline ,时间上判断由于两者出现的顺序有先后,两者应该不能等同,B可能是错的),C表示点( raised beaches 范围上比 points 应该要大,排除),D表示起源(时间上来讲, former coastline 应该先于 raised beaches 出现,排除),选A(选可能性最高)。

  第三类:带词根词缀的词 尝试用词根词缀解题(需积累词根词缀)

  Falls in sea level often exposed a number of important land bridges, such as those linking Alaska to northeast Asia and Britain to northwest Europe, a phenomenon with far-reaching effects not only on human colonization of the globe but also on the environment as a whole-the flora and fauna of isolated or insular areas were radically and oftenirreversibly affected.

  4. By indicating that flora and fauna of isolated or insular areas were often irreversibly affected by the changes due to the Ice Age, the author means that the flora and fauna were(TPO49-1)

  A Unable to return to their previous conditions.

  B In a constant state of change.

  C Completely destroyed by human colonization

  D Unevenly distributed across the area.

  分析:irreversibly=ir(不)+re(反复)+vers(旋转)+ibly(副词)=不可反复旋转地=不可逆转地,affected 表示影响,选A.

  讲完词汇题,我们来看一下如何处理细节题。

  细节题

  第一类:简单的可通过题干关键定位的 直接定位解决(往往通过定位信息就能解题)

  The assessment of past rises and falls in sea level requires study of submerged land surfaces off the coast and of raised or elevated beaches on land. Raised beaches are remnants of former coastlines at higher levels relative to the present shoreline and visible, for instance, along the Californian coast north of San Francisco. The height of a raised beach above the present shoreline, however, does not generally give a straightforward indication of the height of a former sea level. In the majority of cases, the beaches lie at a higher level because the land has been raised up through isostatic uplift or tectonic movement. Isostatic uplift of the land occurs when the weight of ice is removed as temperatures rise, as at the end of an ice age; it has affected coastlines, for example, in Scandinavia, Scotland, Alaska, and Newfoundland during the postglacial period. Tectonic movements involve displacements in the plates that make up Earth’s crust. Middle and Late Pleistocene raised beaches in the Mediterranean are one instance of such movements.

  1. According to paragraph 3, which of following causes an isostatic uplift? (TPO49-1)

  A Shifts in Earth's crust.

  B A decrease in the pressure of thick ice sheets.

  C A decrease in temperature.

  D Changes in sea level.

  分析:用题干 isostatic uplift 进行定位并注意题目问的是原因,发现在段落中间偏下位置 “In the majority of cases, the beaches lie at a higher level because the land has been raised up through isostatic uplift or tectonic movement” 中第一次出现了题干定位词,但是没有讲原因,排除该处信息,继续往下看发现下一句 “Isostatic uplift of the land occurs when the weight of ice is removed as temperatures rise……” 讲到 the weight of ice is removed (冰减少)导致 isostatic uplift 跟题目意思吻合,直接看选项,B说厚冰盖压力减少跟文中冰减少同义替换,选B.

  Information on past climates is of primary relevance to archaeology because of what it tells us about the effects on the land and on the resources that people needed to survive. The most crucial effect of climate was on the sheer quantity of land available in each period, measurable by studying ancient coastlines. These have changed constantly through time, even in relatively recent periods, as can be seen from the Neolithic stone circle of Er Lannic, in Brittany, France (once inland but now half submerged on an island) or medieval villages in east Yorkshire, England, that have tumbled into the sea in the last few centuries as the North Sea gnaws its way westward and erodes the cliffs.Conversely, silts deposited by rivers sometimes push the sea farther back, creating new land, as at Ephesus in western Turkey, a port on the coast in Roman times but today some five kilometers inland.

  2. According to paragraph 1, the city of Ephesus in western Turkey is an example of which of the following? (TPO49-1)

  A Recent changes in the shoreline that have resulted in the creation of new land.

  B Port cities that have lost shoreline due to the erosion of land.

  C The ocean's role in the formation of new land.

  D The importance of changes in shoreline to cities located inland.

  分析:用题干 Ephesus 和 western Turkey 大写地点词进行定位,发现在段落末尾句子 “Conversely, silts deposited by rivers sometimes push the sea farther back, creating new land, as at Ephesus in western Turkey, a port on the coast in Roman times but today some five kilometers inland.” 中说 silts 导致 new land,而 new land 就是 Ephesus in western Turkey,选A.

  第二类:常规定位没法直接解题 需要整段理解

  Although there was no competition between the technologies, there was rivalry between nations. The Italians made energetic and successful efforts to catch up with Germany. Their most successful scriptorium quickly imported two leading German printers to set up presses in their book-producing shop. German printers had the disadvantage of working with the complex typeface that the Italians sneeringly referred to as "Gothic" and that later became known as black letter. Outside Germany, readers found this typeface disagreeable. The Italians, on the other hand, had a clear typeface known as roman that became the type of the future.

  Hence, although the Germans made use of the paper revolution to introduce movable type, the Italians went far to regain the initiative by their artistry. By 1500 there were printing firms in 60 German cities, but there were 150 presses in Venice alone. However, since many nations and governments wanted their own presses, the trade quickly became international. The cumulative impact of this industrial spread was spectacular. Before printing, only the very largest libraries, of which there were a dozen in Europe, had as many as 600 books. The total number of books on the entire Continent was well under 100,000. But by 1500, after only 45 years of the printed book, there were 9 million in circulation.

  According to paragraph 4 and 5, how did German and Italian contributions to the printing industry differ? (TPO49-2)

  A German printers originated and applied a technique that Italian printers adapted more artistically.

  B German printers mass-produced books, while Italian printers produced fewer books of better quality.

  C German printers used only black typeface, while Italian printers used a variety of typeface colors and styles.

  D German printers had greater technological skill, while Italian printers wee more commercially successful.

  分析:尝试用 German,Italian 和 printing industry 进行定位,结果发现两段都在讲 Germany 和 Italy 在 printing industry 上的竞争,只能把2段话全部看完,第4段主要讲 German printers 和 Italian printers 在 printing 上面的竞争,其中 German printers 是先驱, Italian printers 是模仿者,但是 German printers的typeface比Italian printers 的 typeface 要落后。第5段主要讲,正是由于 typeface 上的进步, Italian printing 发展好于 German printing ,比如意大利的出版社多于德国等等。综合2段有用的跟题目相关的信息,选A.

  分析完了托福阅读考试出现比重最大的词汇题和细节题,你会发现即便是解决同一类题目,你在实际答题的时候还是需要做一些解题思路上的调整。

  3.备考建议

  最后,涯叔在这里给各位参加托福考试的考生一些备考建议:

  1. 做好随时遇到加试或多套题的准备,平时练习的时候多尝试3篇一块练习甚至4篇一块练习;

  2. 多记忆单词,多翻译长难句,提高自身的英语功底以不变应万变;

  3. 多在模考软件上练习TPO模拟真实的考试场景,保持一种良好的答题状态;

  4. 考前一天一定要早点休息,为之后的真考储存好够用的能量。

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