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托福备考宝鉴:教你怎样系统科学的训练写作

2016/07/2110:48来源:互联网  

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  老师在托福培训课上讲到了托福写作训练方法,一起来看看吧!

  1-5篇 不限时写作 结构完整 300字以上

  6-10篇 1小时 350字以上 结构完整

  要求:检查语法、拼写错误 跑题、表达不清问题

  11-20篇 半小时 400字以上

  要求:检查语法、拼写错误 跑题、表达不清问题 润饰文章

  理由不能太具体 否则不容易展开 要擅于利用“万金由”

  各个理由的关系,必须是并列关系,排列顺序由段落长短来决定。

  开头1 背景+论题+各方观点的理由+作者论点和理由

  背景+论题+反方观点+(反方理由)+过渡+作者观点+作者理由

  开头段写理由的好处

  怎样写背景:

  提出一种普遍的或值得关注的现象(紧扣论题)作为背景

  从远到近,由大到小,谈论紧扣论题的社会观点作为背景

  官方、权威数据,调查研究结果

  开头2 事例+论题+各方观点(和理由)+作者理由和论点

  ⑴ 媒体(电视、电台、报纸、杂志和网络)的报道

  ⑵ 朋友、邻居、同事的故事

  开头3 问题+论题+各方观点(和理由)+作者论点和理由

  把背景用问题方式提出 连续提问(煽情式提问)

  开头4 “引语”+论题+各方观点(和理由)+作者论点和理由

  主题句

  必须是陈述句 必须表面观点 不要直接写事实 由观点到事实

  态度必须坚决 每段都要有主题句 通常位于段首或段末

  结尾

  总结全文(论点+各方观点)+重述论点和理由+提出建议/解决问题/深化意义

  把对方的优点移植到己方,把己方的观点消灭掉,提出实施方案和注意事项

  深化意义=展望未来+对国家社会的好处

  黄金规则一 –The longer, the better

  ⑴ 每一个论点都要有理由

  ⑵ 每一个理由都要有例子

  ⑶ 每一个例子都要有细节

  黄金规则二----------“万金由”

  黄金规则三 重述语意的技巧

  ⑴使用同义词进行替换

  ⑵使用同根词进行替换

  Oppose-opposition

  Build-building

  Announce-announcement

  Explain-explanation

  ⑶使用短语进行替换

  (Support) argue for/vote for/be in favor of

  (Oppose) argue against/vote against/object to/be opposed to

  ⑷使用全新的表达法进行替换

  A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near the community.

  ----------a large factory is supposed to built near the community according to the announcement issued by a company.

  Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community.

  ------There is a growing awareness of both the positive and negative influences that the construction plan brings to our community.

  黄金规则四-黄金句型 priceless sentence patterns

  超酷超炫超难句型大比拼

  注意:主题句 尽可能2-1格式 细节提升

  每个段落开头

  1. 强调句(1-2)

  2. The more…,the more (1-2)

  The more frequently we communicate with family members, the more harmonious the relationship in the family between us is.(只要涉及交流都可以用)

  3. 倒装句(2-3)

  ①So…that….以至于

  So big is the classroom that it may hold ten thousand people.

  So fast does he run that the train couldn’t catch up with him.

  ② As…as(more…than…) 比较结构

  I run as fast as he did-----I run as fast as did he.

  ③表示地点、位置、范围、处所的状语或表语提前至句首

  My sister is among those students.----Among those students is my sister.

  ④分词或形容词短语提前至句首

  主语(+定语)+be+形容词/过去分词/不及物动词现在分词+介词+名词

  主语(+定语)+be+及物动词现在分词+n.

  E.g. Contrary to/coincident with the opinion of many people is my heartfelt (忠心的) objection to/agreement with the idea that students should study together with classmates.

  Those people/parents who hold the opinion that money is the only symbol of success are satisfied with/contented with/interested in/worried about/opposed to their children finding a high-paying and long-working job.------------Satisfied with/contented with/interested in/worried about/opposed to their children finding a high-paying and long-working job are those people/parents who hold the opinion that money is the only symbol of success

  Arguing for those students living outside the campus are those people who hold the opinion that independence is the most critical characteristic of a university student

  ⑤形容词+though/as+主语+谓语+主句

  Rich though he is, he is unhappy.

  Though the advantages (that owning a business enjoys/leads to/results in) are considerable/wonderful/numerous, they can not compete with the benefits (that working for others brings about/causes), when/if responsibility is taken into consideration/deliberation/account.

  Though the advantages that living in outside the campus enjoys are considerable, they can not compete with the benefits that living in inside the campus brings about, when safety is taken into consideration.(通常用在第一段的最后一句话提出文章论点和理由,2-1文章的承上启下部分或文章的结尾) ---------------------------- considerable though the advantages that living in outside the campus enjoys are, they can not compete with the benefits that living in inside the campus brings about, when safety is taken into consideration.

  ⑥表示否定的副词或短语+助动词+主语+谓语+其他成分

  No/not/never/Neither/nor/ (全部否定)

  seldom/rarely/barely/scarcely/hardly(部分否定)

  Never will I form an idea that bicycles affect human beings’ life style most profoundly among all transportation means.

  ⑦Only+状语置于句首+助动词+主语+谓语+其他成分

  Only though this crisis do I understand that you love me best in the world.

  3. 比较结构和倍数关系(1-2)

  As…as…

  A is five times as big as B

  A is five times bigger than B

  A is five times the size of B.

  4. 修辞问句(1-2)

  When human beings enjoy their happy life, isn’t it necessary that they give some consideration to those cute animals without enough playing ground?

  When those people enjoy their happy life outside campus, isn’t it necessary that they give some consideration to the great opportunities with their classmates if they live inside campus?

  When those people enjoy convenience brought by automobiles, isn’t it necessary that they give some consideration to the heavily polluted air and those people who are injured severely (had) in the car accidents?

  When people enjoy the convenience brought the construction plan, isn’t it necessary that they give some consideration to the heavily polluted air and those people who are injured severely or die in the car accident because of the traffic jam after the construction of the factory?

  5. 并列结构(2-3)

  Teaching machines are devices that can store instructional information, present displays, receive response from a learner, and act on those responses.

  6. 虚拟语气

  ① 阐述各种假定的恶劣后果时,可以使用虚拟语气。

  If we built a factory in our community, there would be much pollution.

  ② 表示建议时,可以使用虚拟语气。

  I suggest he (should) go now

  ③ 论及不太可能会实现或不可能会实现或不希望会实现的事情时,可以使用虚拟语气。

  7. 插入语(2-3次)

  重要的插入语列举:

  l indeed, surely, (however,nevertheless,nonetheless,admittedly, notwithstanding)转折,意思完全一样, obviously,besides, furthermore, briefly, similarly,

  l honestly\frankly\generally (speaking),

  naturally, luckily\fortunately,astonishingly, conversely, undeniably, undoubtedly

  l strange to say, needless to say, most important of all, worse of all

  l in sum\short\ summary , in other words, in a sense, in general, in my view\opinion\judgment,

  l in consequence, in conclusion

  l in the first place,in addition

  l On the contrary, in contrast

  l to my joy\delight\satisfaction\ surprise\astonishment\amazement\ regret \disappointment,

  l of course,

  l for instance\example,

  l in fact, as a matter of fact

  l to be sure, to sum up, to tell the truth, to start with,

  l I am sure, I believe\wonder\suppose, it seems, as I see it, what is important (serious), I’m afraid, it is said

  语言的雕琢

  聪明的 clever brilliant smart intelligent wise genius bright talented gifted quick-witted quick-minded ingenious

  非常 very extremely extraordinarily highly unusually pretty considerably remarkably amazingly astonishingly surprisingly impressively noticeable notably

  著名的 well-known famed noted celebrated renowned eminent

  Enjoy a nation-wide/world-wide fame/name/recognition/

  Celebrity/eminence /reputation be widely recognized acknowledged

  关于 regarding concerning involving as regards relating to with respect to with regard to with reference to with relation to

  E.g.: Concerning this issue, as far as I am concerned,

  I think you are very famous and clever

  From my point of view, you are extraordinarily well-known and intelligent.

  文章中禁止使用的项目

  About ,get ,famous, clever, very, lovely, good, bad, big, many, important

  在每个名词前,试图加上一个形容词;在每个形容词前,试图加上一个副词

  词汇选择的标准

  Understandable

  Acceptable

  Correct e.g. a slim/ample opportunity take care of yourself

  Playwright(剧作家)

  Gain/obtain/accumulate/acquire knowledge(获得知识)

  Appropriate

  Exact

  Idiomatic(合乎语言习惯的)

  Interesting

  段落的实现

  ⑴例证法 每个理由后面必须同时有例子 每篇文章至少两个例子

  提出论点-列举事例-分析事例-得出结论-(重述论点)我认为-因为我觉得-比如说-你看

  举例之后 一定要强调这样的例子不胜枚举。。。

  Abraham Lincoln

  ⑵因果法 提出论点-原因-分析条件(如果这样会有什么好处/坏处,而这正是我们所需要/担心的)-得出结果

  Lead to/result in

  result from

  Because of/due to/thanks to/owing to/by reason of/on account of

  For 表示“因为”时不能放在句首

  Because/for/since/as

  As a result/outcome/consequence of

  In consequence/in the end/consequently

  Therefore/thereby/hence/thus(副词)

  So(连词)

  ⑶ 比较对照法(整体、分项比较)

  整体比较的好处:写起来容易 整体印象完整 缺点:两者对比不鲜明

  分项比较的好处:两者对比特别鲜明 缺点:零碎的印象,大量的重复

  Interweave 交织

  ⑷ 分类法/并列法

  总论点

  分论点一 在A方面 在B方面 在C方面

  分论点二

  分论点三

  ⑸定义法

  衔接手段

  使用连接词和短语(表示并列、转折、递进、因果、比较、对照、举例)

  使用代词

  使用语意粘连

  举例:同意建工厂

  常用词汇和结构

  表示第一项

  Firstly, to begin/start with, first of all, in the first place, on the one hand, the most important reason is, first and foremost

  另一项 secondly, in the second place, on the other hand, besides, further more, additionally, in addition, moreover, equally important is, also, too, another

  最后一项 last but not the least, most important of all, finally, thirdly, another point/reason

  题型分类:

  ⑴观点选择 给出两个对立观点或者一个观点的对立两个方面,要求支持其中一个观点或者观点的一个方面。

  Do you agree or disagree with the statements: parents are the best teachers 带有绝对性的题目,驳论更好写

  ⑵比较对比类 给出两个对立观点或者一个观点的对立两个方面,要求进行比较论述,并给出个人观点

  It has been said,” Not everything that is learned is contained in books” compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is more important? Why?

  ⑶自定义类 考试频率最低、难度最大

  You have the opportunity to visit a foreign country for two weeks. Which country would you like to visit? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice.

  给出一个范围或论题 要求自己确定观点并论述、正面反面都可以写

  如何审题:

  确定题目的类别(题材/题型)

  确定切入点,寻找绝对词汇(never/conly/anything/best)和其他带有限制性含义的词语(形容词、介词短语)

  列提纲时间短于两分钟

  简短提纲=观点+理由+闪现的句子和名言

  主体框架

  1+1 支持面+理由 两点论述

  2+1(两种)A型 支持面优点的充分论述+反对面的缺点一到两点的简略改进(自由选室友 or 学校决定)

  B型 支持面的理由两点充分论述+支持面的另一个理由简略论述

  2-1(两种)-重点推荐

  A. 支持面优点两点充分论述+反对面优点一到两点的简略改进

  B. 讨论点的优点两点充分论述+讨论点的缺点一到两点论述

  折中方案

  各种题型的框架

  观点选择类:1+1、 2+1 、2-1、折中方案

  托福写作贵在坚持练习,祝考试顺利!

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