no, not, none, neither, never, deny
fail to, absence from,lack\ lack of, refuse to, little, few
例、I write to my parents every month./I never fail to write to my parents every month./He is little known as an artist./He is not a famous artist
a- ab-anti- counter-de-dis-, il-, im-, in-, ir-, mal-, mis-, non-, un-
less, -free, -proof
because, since, for, as, due to, owing to, In that, so(that), therefore, thus, hence, as a result, consequently...
例：We didn't know what to do as we were just visiting there./The delay is owing to the crowded traffic./This book is different from that book in that this one is about chemistry and that one about history.
cause, lead to, make, render, stimulate, spur, spark, push, motivate,prompt, be responsible to...
compare, compare to
自身含有最高级含义的词:maximum, favorite, outstanding, top...
比较级：more…than, -er than, less…than
表示变化的词：change, alter, vary, modify, revise, increase, decrease, enhance, diminish, develop, progress, advance, improve, retreat, degenerate, continue, remain
表示差异的词：different, distinguish, separate ,，surpass, exceed, excel, over
unless, supposing, suppose, providing / provided (that), in case, as long as7 on condition that...
likewise, in the same way, similarly/similar to, vice versa, also/as well as, not only ...but also ..v both ... and …,neither... nor ，like, equally, or/and...
but/yet, however, in contrast (to), conversely, though/although, nevertheless, in spite of/despite, on the contrary, even if/even though, instead ，different from/differ from, while...