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当前位置:首页 > 托福频道 > 托福词汇 > 托福词汇:学科词汇之生物类

托福词汇:学科词汇之生物类

发布时间:2021-10-09 关键词:托福词汇

摘要: 首先我们来了解一下到底什么是生物学(biology),the scientific study of the natural processes of living things.简单翻译一下就是一种研究生命体自然进程的科学。

   首先我们来了解一下到底什么是生物学(biology),the scientific study of the natural processes of living things.简单翻译一下就是一种研究生命体自然进程的科学。 世界上的动物已知的就有超过百万种,这么庞大的数量会给生物学家(biologist)的工作带来很大的困难,这个时候就要引入分类学(taxonomy)的概念,给动物们分类,那按照分类的标准不同,我们来看看~ 按照骨骼的性质划分:

  Vertebrate / ˈvɜ:rtɪbrət / n脊椎动物

  Invertebrate /ɪn ˈvɜ:rtɪbrət/ n无脊椎动物(考题7 reading passage1:One question was related to evidence that the invertebrate fauna (animals without spines) of the Mediterranean had changed abruptly about 6 million years ago.)

托福词汇

  按照生活环境划分:

  Amphibian /æmˈfɪbiən/ n两栖动物(考题40 reading passage3:In contrast to mammals and birds,amphibians are unable to produce thermal energy through their metabolic activity)

  Aquatic /əˈkwætɪk/ adj水生的(考题44 reading passage1:they had radiated into almost all availableaquatic habitats)

  Terrestrial /təˈrestriəl/ adj陆地的;陆栖的;陆生的(考题44 reading passage1:One of the most significant evolutionary events that occurred on Earth was the transition of water-dwelling fish to terrestrial tetrapods.)

  而如果要细分到某一种具体物种的分类,要经过七层划分: 从下到上依次是:

  Kingdom /ˈkɪŋdəm/ n界

  phylum /ˈfaɪləm/ n门

  class /klæs/ n纲

  order /ˈɔ:rdə(r)/ n目

  family /ˈfæməli/ n科

  genus /ˈdʒi:nəs/ n属

  species /ˈspi:ʃi:z/ n种

  而光知道一个模糊的分类概念,在托福的文章中是远远不够的,因为通常都会涉及到某个具体的物种。要是不知道他们的意思,在阅读或听力中想要把握文章描写对象的详细特点就会比较困难,那么接下来就是一波具体的物种单词啦。 首先是昆虫(insect)类:

  Larva /ˈlɑ:rvə/ n幼虫,幼体

  Pest /pest/ n害虫,害兽,害鸟

  Worm /wɜ:rm/ n蠕虫

  两栖动物amphibian:

  Turtle /ˈtɜ:rtl/ n龟

  Snake /sneɪk/ n蛇

  Toad /toʊd/蟾蜍(考题25 listening lecture1: But the cane toad itself became a pest and has destroyed much of the wildlife on that continent.)

  Lizard /ˈlɪzərd/n蜥蜴(考题21 listening lecture3: Probably back in some previous biology course you learned that snakes evolved from lizards)

  Chameleon /kəˈmi:liən/ n变色龙

  Crocodile /ˈkrɑ:kdaɪl/ n鳄鱼

  水生动物Aquatic animal:

  Dolphin /ˈdɑ:lfɪn/ n海豚

  Whale /weɪl/ n鲸鱼

  Shrimp /ʃrɪmp/ n小虾

  Prawn /prɔ:n/ n对虾,大虾,明虾

  Lobster /ˈlɑ:b stə(r)/ n龙虾

  Crab /kræb/ n螃蟹

  Clam /klæm/ 蛤蜊,蚌

  Coral /ˈkɔ:rəl; ˈkɑ:rəl/ n珊瑚(考题27 listening lecture1: And there's another technique that's been experimented with to try to help coral reefs recover from bleaching.)

  Seal /si:l/ n海豹

  Octopus /ˈɑ:ktəpəs/ n章鱼(考题17 listening lecture4: The octopus is prey to many species, including humans, so how does it escape its predators?)

  Otter /ˈɑ:tər/ n水獭

  陆生动物Terrestrial animal:

  Gorilla /gəˈrɪlə/ n大猩猩

  Chimpanzee /ˌtʃɪmpænˈzi:/ n黑猩猩

  Baboon /bæˈbu:n/ n狒狒

  Microbe /ˈmaɪkroʊb/ n微生物(考题53 reading passage2: High moisture and temperatures speed the growth of soil microbes that decompose organic compounds)

  Bacteria /bækˈtɪriə/ n细菌

  Virus /ˈvaɪrəs/ n病毒

  而在生物类的文章中,掌握了具体的描写对象之后,我们还需要把握住它们干了些什么,这些行为带来了什么样的影响,下面就是一波关于生物行为的单词啦,赶紧接住!

  Subsist /səbˈsɪst/ v存在,有效/维持度日

  Exist /ɪgˈzɪst/ v存在,实际上有/生活,生存

  Secrete /sɪˈkri:t/ v分泌(考题17 reading passage3: The ants live in large, hollow thorns and eat sugarsecreted by the tree.)

  Assimilate /əˈsɪməleɪt/ v消化,吸收

  Breed /bri:d/ v交配,繁殖/喂养(注意过去式bred,过去分词bred)

  Proliferate /prəˈlɪfəreɪt/ v迅速繁殖(或增殖);猛增

  Propagate /ˈprɑ:pəgeɪt/ v繁殖;增殖(考题9 reading passage3: These plants propagate by producing spores–tiny fertilized cells that contain all the instructions for making a new plant–but the spore are unprotected by any outer coating and carry no supply of nutrient.)

  Evolve /iˈvɑ:lv/ n进化,演化(考题39 listening lecture4: Cows and goats have evolved highly specialized digestive systems that allow them to metabolize cellulose.)

  Darwinism /ˈdɑ:r wɪnɪzəm/ n达尔文主义(查尔斯·达尔文于 19 世纪创立的学说,认为生物通过自然选择而进化)

  Extinct /ɪkˈstɪŋkt/ adj已经毁灭的

  Extinction /ɪkˈstɪŋkʃn/ n灭种

  那么还是一些相关的单词:

  Immune /ɪˈmju:n/ adj有免疫力的(考题17 reading passage3: In vertebrates, the immune system provides a multiple defense against internal parasites.)

  Immunity /ɪˈmju:nəti/ n免疫力

  Metabolism /məˈtæbəlɪzəm/ n新陈代谢(考题23 reading passage1: The city is an extraordinary processor of mass and energy and has its own metabolism)

  Morphology /mɔ:rˈfɑ:lədʒi/ n形态学

  Microscope /ˈmaɪkrəskoʊp/ n显微镜

  Calorie /ˈkæləri/ n卡路里

  Glucose /ˈglu:koʊs; ˈglu:koʊz/ n葡萄糖(考题18 listening lecture4: In frogs, the extra glucose makes it harder for the winter inside the cells to freeze.

  Protein /ˈproʊti:n/ n蛋白质

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