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当前位置:首页 > 托福频道 > 托福阅读 > 【师资详解】托福阅读中的“例子”在各题型中的运用

【师资详解】托福阅读中的“例子”在各题型中的运用

发布时间:2016-05-23 关键词:【师资详解】托福阅读中的“例子”在各题型中的运用

摘要:老师在托福培训课上讲考生们通常为了能够阅读完托福阅读文章,一看到例子就会简单略过。其实,在解题时我们也可以根据例子的各种特点解答各类题型。下面将具体解读例子在各题型中的运用。

  老师在托福培训课上讲考生们通常为了能够阅读完托福阅读文章,一看到例子就会简单略过。其实,在解题时我们也可以根据例子的各种特点解答各类题型。下面将具体解读例子在各题型中的运用。

  

解读托福阅读中的“例子”在各题型中的运用

 

  例子在托福阅读中随处可见,在我们读文章的时候,例子的内容是可以省略不用仔细看的部分,而在解题时我们也可以根据例子的这一特点,来解托福阅读的各种题型。

  首先,最明显的例子是出现了表示例子的词,比较常见的例子词有:for example, for instance, such as, like,include。 除了有很明显的例子词的例子外,还有一些是不带例子词的例子,对于这些不带例子词的例子我们只要弄明白了只要写的是一个具体的东西或是具体的事情时,我们就可以把他们当作例子。我们来看看带例子词的例子在各个题型中的运用。

  (1)如果在句子简化题中出现例子的句子,首先在解题时例子的内容可以不用看,还有一点就是往往出现例子的部分会成为一个错误选项,所以可以根据这点很快的排除掉一个不对的选项。比如TPO4 Deer Populations of the Puget Sound这篇文章中的句子简化题:

  In addition to finding an increase of suitable browse, like huckleberry and vine maple, Arthur Einarsen, longtime game biologist in the Pacific Northwest, found quality of browse in the open areas to be substantially more nutritive.

  在这个句子中,出现了例子词like,所以“ like huckleberry and vine maple”这部分内容我们就可以先不用看,而且在四个选项中我们会发现D选项就把原句中like例子中的内容当作一个主要内容在说了,所以可以肯定的先把D排除掉。

  A. Arthur Einarsen’s longtime family with the Pacific Northwest helped him discover areas where deer had an increase in suitable browse.

  B. Arthur Einarsen found that deforested feeding grounds provided deer with more and better food.

  C. Biologist like Einarsen believe it is important to find additional open areas with suitable browse for deer to inhabit.

  D. According to Einarsen, huckleberry and vine maple are examples of vegetation that may someday improve the nutrition of deer in the open areas of the Pacific Northwest.

  (2)如果在细节题中出现定位的句子是整个例子时,则解题思路与修辞目的题相同,需要找到这个例子的观点句,此观点句的内容既为正确答案。我们来看TPO13 Biological clocks这篇文章中的第二个题目,这个题就是一个细节题:

  Paragraph 1: ... By isolating organisms completely from external periodic cues, biologists learned that organisms have internal clocks. For instance, apparently normal daily periods of biological activity were maintained for about a week by the fungus Neurospora when it was intentionally isolated from all geophysical timing cues while orbiting in a space shuttle. The continuation of biological rhythms in an organism without external cues attests to its having an internal clock.

  In paragraph 1, the experiment on the fungus Neurospora is mentioned to illustrate: (2)

  A. the existence of weekly periods of activity as well as daily ones

  B. the finding of evidence that organisms have internal clocks

  C. the effect of space on the internal clocks of organisms

  D. the isolation of one part of an organism's cycle for study

  通过题目所问我们很容易能够发现问题所在的内容是一个例子,有例子词for instance,所以我们找答案就应该去看例子的前面一句,发现主要在说的biologists learned that organisms have internal clocks,所以这个题选B。

  (3)如果在句子插入题中,需要插入的句子是一个例子时,我们解题的思路是需要把例子插入到观点句的后面;如果需要插入的句子是观点句,而四个黑方框所在的句子中有例子时,则需要插入的观点句往往就插在例子的句子前面。如果在文章总结题中看到例子的句子,则我们要直接排除掉这个选项。我们来看TPO3 The long-term stability of ecosystems这篇文章中的句子插入题,需要插入的句子是:

  In fact, damage to the environment by humans is often much more severe than damage by natural events and processes.

  Paragraph 6: █Ecologists are especially interested to know what factors contribute to the resilience of communities because climax communities all over the world are being severely damaged or destroyed by human activities. █The destruction caused by the volcanic explosion of Mount St. Helens, in the northwestern United States, for example, pales in comparison to the destruction caused by humans. █We need to know what aspects of a community are most important to the community’s resistance to destruction, as well as its recovery. █

  很明显in fact开头的句子我们可以看作是观点句,主要强调的是人为活动的破坏力要大于自然的破坏力,而在四个黑方框所在的句子中我们会发现在第二个黑方框后面所在的句子正好是一个例子,有例子词for example,所以可以直接放在第二个黑方框的位置。

  托福阅读贵在坚持练习,祝考试顺利!

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