摘要：新航道老师在托福培训课上详细讲解过托福阅读中排除题的三个考察方向：1 对最基本的细节信息理解的考察。2 对事件发展程序理解的考察。3 对文章或段落主题抓取能力的考察。那么，在以下内容中我们就用几个实例内容为大家详细解析一下，希望能为大家的托福备考带来帮助。
In1943, the federal government imposed rent controls to help solve the problem ofhousing shortages during wartime. The federal program ended after the war, butin some locations, including NY, controls continued. Under NY’s controls, alandlord generally cannot raise rents on apartments as long as the tenantscontinue to renew their leases. In places as Santa Monica, California, rentcontrols are more recent. They were spurred by inflation of the 1970’s, whichcombined with California’s rapid population growth, pushed housing prices, aswell as rents, to record levels.
Which of the following was NOT a reason forthe introduction of rent controls in Santa Monica, California?
A. Rapid population growth
C. Economic conditions duringwartime
D. Record-high housing prices
在这道排除题中，由于四个选项提供的信息都是用名词词组，我们可以断定，段落中存在其中三个词组，而题干中又出现地名Santa Monica, California. 故可将此地名作为关键词，锁定答案所在句子，然后逐一排除。而……as Santa Monica, California, rent controlsare more recent. They were spurred by inflation of the 1970’s, which combinedwith California’s rapid population growth, pushed housing prices, ……. 这句话当中分别提到了A, B, D三个答案，所以答案为C.
The sauce that is today called ketchup (orcatsup) in western cultures is a tomato-based sauce that is quite distinct fromthe eastern ancestors of this product. A sauce called ke-tiap was in use inChina at least as early as the seventeenth century but the Chinese version ofsauce was made of pickled fish, shellfish, and spices. The popularity of thisChinese sauce spread to Singapore and Malaysia where it was called kechap. The Indonesiasauce ketjab drives its name from the same sauce as Malaysian sauce but is madefrom very different ingredients. The Indonesian ketjab is made by cooking blacksoy beans, fermenting them, placing them in salt brine for at least a week,cooking the resulting solution further, and sweetening it heavily; this processresults in a dark, thick, and sweet variation of soy sauce.
It is NOT stated in paragraph 1 that
A. the Chinese sauce was inexistence in 17th century
B. the Malaysian sauce was similarto the Chinese sauce
C. the Chinese sauce was made fromseafood and spices
D. the Indonesian sauce wassimilar to the Chinese sauce
对于这道题，题干中没有任何指示性的词汇，我们无法判断是从事件的哪个阶段入手，那么就只能每个答案逐一排除。仔细阅读A选项，然后发现A选项中有17th century， 故可以将其作为关键线索，去文中寻找，……called ke-tiap was in use in China at least as early as theseventeenth century…… 文中的这句话表明A不能作为正确答案。那么继续看B， B选项中同时提到Malaysian 与Chinese. 则可以到文中去寻找两个国籍名词同时出现的句子，通过判断，…… this Chinese sauce spread to Singapore and Malaysia where it wascalled kechap. 这句话表明，B也不能作为正确答案。继续看C，C 选项当中有Chinese, 还有seafood andspices，于是锁定文中句子……the Chineseversion of sauce was made of pickled fish, shellfish, and spices……, 故C也不是正确选项。至此，我们可以直接选择D作为排除选项。
Decades before this disaster,environmentalist had predicted just such an enormous oil spill in this areabecause of the treacherous nature of the waters due to the submerged reefs,icebergs, and violent storms there. They had urged that oil be transported tothe continental United States by land-based pipeline rather than by oil tankeror by undersea pipeline to reduce the potential damage to the environment posedby the threat of an oil spill.
Which point is NOT made by theenvironmentalist mentioned in paragraph 2?
A. That a huge oil spill in thewaters off Alaska was possible.
B. That the waters off the coastof Alaska were dangerous for ships.
C. That oil tanker should not beused to transport oil from Alaska.
D. That an undersea pipeline waspreferable to a land-based pipeline.
这道题题干中提到的environmentalist是整个该段的主语，故不能作为关键信息词。而发现A. C.中的Alaska，都在段落中没有提到。所以可以考虑某个答案与主题相悖。这类题目，也可以多关注段落中是否有表示转折的词汇，例如but, instead of, however, rather than. 所以，稍加阅读后，发现……land-based pipeline rather than by oil tanker or by underseapipeline…… 这句话当中出现rather than, 锁定D选项中同样的话语，刚好与原文观点相反，所以选择D.